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2. Nursing Education


26 July 2017

How to Publish in Journals: Mary Fran Tracy, RN, PHD, CCNS Interview

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    Writing - have you ever considered writing an article for a nursing journal but aren't sure how to get started? Here are some tips from the editor of Advanced Critical Care.


    NTI - How to Publish in Journals: Mary Fran Tracy, RN, PHD, CCNS Interview

    Mary Fran Tracy, RN, PhD, CCNS is the editor of AACN's journal, Advanced Critical Care. She spoke with allnurses Community Manager Mary Watts, RN at the recent NTI conference. The Advanced Critical Care Journal is a quarterly, peer-reviewed publication of in-depth articles intended for experienced critical care and acute care clinicians at the bedside, advanced practice nurses, and clinical and academic educators. Each issue includes a topic-based symposium, feature articles, and columns of interest to critical care and progressive care clinicians. AACN Advanced Critical Care contains concisely written, practical information for immediate use and future reference. Continuing education units are available for selected articles in each issue. Have you ever thought of what goes into publishing an article in a nursing journal? Mary Fran Tracy provides some tips:
    • Take a university writing course
    • Attend conference panel discussions
    • Contact mentors who have published articles
    • Complete online courses in writing for professional publications
    • Look to the publication itself for guidelines
    • Read the journal that you are targeting for your article - know the style
    And of course, always review and proofread your article prior to submission. Plagiarism is also a major concern for both authors and publishers. Self-plagiarism is also a problem. You can only publish articles once. Some other tips:
    • Set aside time to write
    • Have a conducive environment to write
    • Start small and work up to professional journals
    • Be dedicated and committed
    • Realize that not all of your writing will be successful
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26 July 2017

Dear Nurses,

Please see the message below from our colleagues at the CDC, regarding new resources from AAFP.

Dear Partners,

We are pleased to share the news that the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has developed a web page dedicated to Alcohol Misuse. The page contains multiple resources on this topic, including a new alcohol intervention manual, Addressing Alcohol Use Practice Manual: An Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Program, developed in collaboration with the Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine’sFASD Practice and Implementation Center funded through CDC. We welcome you to visit the site and share it with your networks and colleagues.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention Team National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Centers for Disease Control and Prevention



The aim of nursing education is a development of the nursing profession. One way to promote development is to clarify the professional role. The role definition for nursing is mostly transmitted through tacit knowledge. We consider that the professional development of the nursing profession in Sweden requires a clear and well-defined nurse role. Stated goals of professional programs for nursing do not include the entire body of tacit knowledge. The overall development requires recognition of a professional status together with a clear and well-defined role. We have found a significant change in the distribution of role-conceptions which occurred after the nurses had experienced their first year as registered nurses, and which did not occur during the educational process. This indicates that the conceptions of the need for a more clearly defined nursing role are assimilated during work experience. This confirms the necessity and importance of role modelling, role repetition and interactions with a professional group as part of the educational process.

Major Events in the History of Nursing  Education

Emergence of Nursing Schools: 'Nightingale Model' Training schools

    1872 - New England Hospital for Women

    Linda Richards: Considered America's first trained nurse

    1873 - Bellevue NY (May); New Haven, CT (October); Massachusetts General, MA (November)

Hospital based training -Nightingale Model: Differences between English model and United States model.

    English: After the Crimean war, Florence Nightingale received funding to start a school of nursing St. Thomas Hospital.     School administration separate from hospital administration.     United States: school under hospital administration ; apprenticeship program. Pupil nurses staffed the hospitals.     Program length initially 2 years, increased to 3 years. Seen as women's work. Service first, Education second.

Professional Organizations:

American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses (1893)

    Purpose “the establishment and maintenance of a universal standard of training” for nursing     Name changed to:National League for Nursing Education (NLNE) 1912

Committee on Education: (1915 - 1918)

    Published Standard Curriculum for Nursing Schools, Purpose: To serve as a guide to training schools  regarding     standards of nursing education.. Book titles: Standard Curriculum for Schools of Nursing  © 1919     Revised 1926     1952 - NLNE, the National Organization for Public Health Nursing, and Association for Collegiate Schools of Nursing  combine to establish the National League for Nursing (NLN)

Nurses Associated Alumnae of United States and Canada (1896) Sponsored by Society of Superintendents of Training Schools

    Purpose: "To establish and maintain a code of ethics; to elevate the standards of nursing education; to promote the  usefulness and honor, the financial and other interests of nursing." Minutes of the Association, February, 1897   Name changed to American Nurses Association - 1912     See "One Strong Voice" (1976) for history of the American Nurses Association

Liscensure and Registration for Nurses:

    North Carolina (1903); New York State (1904)     Aim to protect the public: Differentiate nurses with education, who have met the standards of the profession from those    who with little or no education and therefore  have not met the standards of the profession.

States set standards fn order to become a registered nurse:

  •     Need a diploma from an approved (accredited) school

  •     Pass a standard examination "State Boards" (1913)

  •     At one time, needed reference from the superintendent of your school attesting to your moral character

Use of R.N. Registered Nurse - first used New York State Other states followed at later dates. (Liscensure of professions   considered under constitution as  "States Right" )

From Apprenticeship Training to Collegiate Education

Early Collegiate Program: University of Minnesota- part Department of Medicine (1910 - first degree offered 1919) BS degree with diploma in nursing { 3 year University program + 2 years 4 months in school of nursing.)

Goldmark Report (1923)

In 1919 the Rockefeller Foundation funded the Committee for the Study of Nursing Education, to study nursing education in the United States. Josephine Goldmark, a social worker, was lead investigator and the the report, published in 1923, is known as the Goldmark Report .Committee  included Annie W. Goodrich, M. Adelaide Nutting, and Lillian Wald,

The report concluded that the quality of existing nursing programs was inadequate.

Recommendations of Goldmark Report:

  •     Nursing schools should have separate governing boards

  •     Student work week - no more than 48 hours per week

  •     Objective of training programs should be education not service

  •     Lower time to 28 month

  •     University education  recommended for future educators

As a result of the report, the Rockefeller Foundation funded an experiment in nursing education which became the Yale School of Nursing. The Yale School of Nursing was the first autonomous school of nursing with its own dean, faculty, budget,and degree meeting the standards of the University. Education took precedence over service to a hospital, with training based on an educational plan rather than on service needs

Accreditation : Setting standards for nursing education:

    Education standards for schools of nursing.     States:  Board of Education or Board f Registration Nursing     National: NLNE (1938) NLN 1950's.  The National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC, 1997)  responsible  for all accrediting activities is transferred to this independent new subsidiary..     American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) - accrediting body focused exclusively on baccalaureate and  graduate nursing programs.(1969)


Cadet Nurse Corps: Need for nurses increased; Bolton Nurse Training Act (1943) federal funds authorized for nurses training. Accelerated curriculum; from 36 months to 30 months. To meet the  requirements of state boards, students had a 6 month practical assignment either in their home school or military. (See You Tube Video)


Associate Degree Program

    Committee of the Functions of Nursing: A program for the Nursing Profession (1948) Columbia University, Teacher's  College     Range of activities involved in performing nursing functions differentiated:  from simple to complex; repetitive, uncomplicated routines to those requiring critical judgments and independent decision making ability.

Mildred Montag: Doctoral Dissertation (1948) The Education of Nursing Technicians

  •     New type of technical education proposed; 2 year program

  •     Community College; college credits

  •     Step toward BS and graduate degrees

  •     Programs started in 1951; have grown in number; Est. 60% RN's are ADN graduates.

Nurse Training Act of 1964 (“Great Society” - President Johnson)

    W.K. Kellogg Foundation: Nursing Advisory Committee: Panel report Toward Quality in Nursing:     Phase out hospital schools:

  •     Increase number nurses graduating each year

  •     Increase number of baccalaureate nurses

  •     Increase number of master's prepared nurses

  •     Funding for nursing research

  •     Build new schools

  •     Fund programs for nurses seeking advanced degrees

ANA Report 1965

  •     All nursing education should take place in institutions of higher education

  •     Baccalaureate degrees minimum preparation for all nurse leaders (ex. head nurse) , administrators or supervisors.

  •     Associate degree (community college) minimum education for  technical

Nursing Education: Graduate /Studies and Advance Practice

  •     Clinical Nurse Specialist

  •     Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Master's

  •     Doctor Nursing practice (DNP)

  •     Nurse Practitioner

  •     Public Health

  •     Doctor Philosophy Nursing (PhD) Research

Institute of Medicine (IOM) Reports

Mission to improve health by providing "unbiased, evidence-based and authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy to policy makers, professionals, leaders in every aspect of society, and the public at large Not part of federal government. [See Finkelman, Anita and Carole Kenner 2010 ,Teaching IOM 2nd Edition ANA Publications]  .

Implications for Nursing Education

  •     Interdisciplinary assessment of care needs

  •     Examination of evidence to support care needs

  •     Interdisciplinary plan of care

  •     Evaluation of care using a quality model

  •     Application of quality improvement techniques and informatics to adjust the plan based on patient outcomes.


Evidence Based Practice (EBP) "EBP as a problem solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from well-designed studies and patient care data, and combines it with patient preferences and values and nurse expertise." (AJN, January, 2010 Vol 110, 1.) See American Journal of Nursing series(2009)  on Seven Steps of Evidence Based Practice.

Project: Transforming Care at the Bedside (TCAB) 2003 - Robert Woods Johnson and Institute for Health Improvement funded. Redesign work environment; QI approach involving frontline managers and staff. . IOM report Keeping Patients Safe (2004) For TCAB reports on individual projects  see  series of American Journal of Nursing articles (2008)

Education Resources: Technology

    . Clinical Laboratory: Simulation

Skills:Mrs. Chase to Sim-Man: Problem solving/ Critical Thinking

    Point of Care : Tech-Tools:Reference: PDA's (Blackberries; Smart Phones)

Evidence Based Practice

    Medications     Procedures     Communication

The history of nursing is intertwined with the history of nursing education and nursing’s quest for a professional identity. (Allen, 2006) Education has been vital in providing the knowledge, skills, and ability to give quality care to our patients, elevating nursing to a profession and gaining the respect of other professions. The path to nursing's identification as an independent profession has not been an easy one as nursing, dominated by women, was initially bound to the Victorian ideal of women, and hospitals' need for an inexpensive source of workers, which conspired to slow nursing's progress toward status as a profession. Physicians, while recognizing the need for nursing care feared that if nurses were given too much education the nurse would supplant them. These were challenges that nurses needed to overcome; given the enormous challenge, slowly (some say too slowly) nurses have risen to the challenge - thus was the profession of nursing built.


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